According to Microsoft, an active directory is a directory of different objects present on the network. Active Directory Domain Services stores data and serves this data to domain users and administrators. For Example Active directory Domain Services stores user details like usernames, passwords, phone no, and other user-related information, on request it provides this data to authorized users. Active Directory Domain Services can be managed using Domain Controller. One network can have multiple domain controllers placed for active directory services.

Active Directory components

  • Query and index mechanism
  • Active Directory schema
  • Global catalog
  • Replication service

Query and Index Mechanism: These features allow searching and publication of objects with their attributes.

Schema: This is a set of instructions that govern attributes and objects in the AD DS.

Global Catalog: Global catalog stores information about objects present in the network.

Replication Service: As the name suggests, replication ensures the distribution of information across different domain controllers. as above said domain can have multiple domain controllers

Active Directory Structure

OU or Organizational unit: OU is a container that stores active directory objects like computers, uses, and shared folders. OU is used to set the same policy across distinct assets.

Domain: Its logical group of objects which are in the same active directory.

Tree: A tree is a collection of one or more domains. When domains share the same namespace, then those domains are part of the tree. Example. mrtechghost.com, ad.mrtechghost.com

Forest: Forest is a collection of different trees with common active directory components like a global catalog, directory schema, logical stricture, and directory configuration. Forest defines the security boundary within these objects.

For more details follow

https://bootcamps.pentesteracademy.com/course/ad-beginner-may-22

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server/identity/ad-ds/get-started/virtual-dc/active-directory-domain-services-overview

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